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Presenting Complex Economic Theories to Judges

Resumé

Modern antitrust enforcement is based on a clear and objective assessment of effects as identified or measured by sound economic analysis. Agencies and courts across the OECD, however, display varying degrees of sophistication when dealing with economic analyses. Reasons why courts reject economic evidence include exacting standards of proof, a lack of guidance from the authorities, a lack of understanding by the judges and ineffective presentation by the competition authorities. Various techniques are used in court to help judges understand complex economic evidence. Some of them proved more effective than others, particularly if their purpose is to make complex concepts easily accessible to non-experts and to present them in a plain and clear way.

Myndighed
OECD
Regel
Rapport
Udfald
Rapport
Mødedato

Fidelity and Bundled Rebates and Discounts

Resumé

In a “bundled” discount, a combination of products is offered at a lower price than the sum of the prices of the components of the bundle. A “loyalty” discount is a lower price offered to customers who buy more than a threshold volume. The OECD Competition Committee debated fidelity and bundled rebates and discounts in June 2008. This document includes an executive summary and the documents from the meeting: an issues paper by Mr. Antonio Capobianco for the OECD, written submission from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, The European Commission, France, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Chinese Taipei, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and BIAC as well as an aide-memoire of the discussion.

Myndighed
OECD
Regel
Rapport
Udfald
Rapport
Mødedato

Construction Industry

Resumé

The construction industry is a vital component of every OECD economy. The construction sector is responsible for building new houses, apartments, factories, offices and schools. It also builds roads, bridges, ports, railroads, sewers and tunnels, among many other things. In addition, it maintains and repairs all of those structures and produces the basic materials such as concrete that are used to make them. The industry’s significance is due not only to the fact that it provides the buildings and infrastructure on which virtually every other sector depends, but to the fact that it is such a sizeable sector in its own right. The construction industry is Europe’s largest industrial employer, accounting for about seven percent of total employment, and in the EU, the US and Japan combined, it employs more than 40 million people. Among all OECD countries, the construction industry accounts for an average of 6.47 percent of GDP.

Myndighed
OECD
Regel
Rapport
Udfald
Rapport
Mødedato

Rapport fra udvalget om ændring af fusionskontrolreglerne

Resumé

Rapport fra udvalget om ændring af fusionskontrolreglerne fra december 2008. Formålet med danske fusionskontrolregler er at sikre, at fusioner på danske markeder ikke hæmmer den effektive konkurrence betydeligt. Kontrolreglerne skal sikre, at Konkurrencemyndighederne har mulighed for at vurdere de konkurrencemæssige konsekvenser af en fusion, inden fusionen gennemføres. På baggrund af de konkurrencemæssige konsekvenser afgør Konkurrencemyndighederne, om fusionen kan godkendes. I rapport anbefales en række ændringer af fusionskontrolreglerne, herunder en markant nedsættelse af tærsklerne for hvornår der indtræder anmeldelsespligt.

Myndighed
Lov
Regel
Rapport
Udfald
Rapport
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Land Use Restrictions as Barriers to Entry

Resumé

Land use restrictions can serve legitimate purposes, but also prevent entry and raise costs. Land use restrictions govern how land can be used and how uses can be changed. Land use restrictions are widespread. They affect a substantial volume of commerce, through zoning, planning rules, private contracts, location-specific rules and approval processes. The OECD Competition Committee debated competitive effects of land use restrictions in February 2008. This document includes an executive summary and the documents from the meeting: and analytical note by Mr. Sean F. Ennis for the OECD, written submissions from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Korea, Poland, Russia, Chines Taipei, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States as well as an aide-memoire of the discussion.

Myndighed
OECD
Regel
Rapport
Udfald
Rapport
Mødedato

Market Studies

Resumé

Market studies are a wide-spread component of the work portfolios of competition agencies. Nearly every competition agency conducts market studies even though not all of the agencies mean the same thing by “market.” There are some countries, however, with a particularly long and rich tradition of conducting market studies. In the US, market studies were initiated at the beginning of the 20th century and, in Japan, market studies go as far back as the late 1940s. The United Kingdom has spent considerable time and effort reviewing and analyzing its considerable experience in initiating and conducting markets studies as well as in carrying through with the recommendations of such studies.

Myndighed
OECD
Regel
Rapport
Udfald
Rapport
Afgørelser
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The Pros and Cons of Vertical Restraints

Resumé

Do consumers stand to gain or lose when a manufacturer determines prices all the way through to the retail stage? Not even the researchers can agree on the answer. The Competition Authority contributed to the debate on this controversial issue by organising the seminar "The Pros and Cons of vertical restraints".

Myndighed
KKV
Regel
Rapport
Udfald
Rapport
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Trade Associations

Resumé

Trade associations play valuable, fundamental roles as forums for the discussion and exchange of views on important issues of common interest for the industry sector which they represent. Many trade associations activities should be supported and encouraged, because they promote the efficient functioning of the market. The OECD Competition Committee debated trade associations in October 2007. This document includes an executive summary and the documents from the meeting: an analytical note by Mr. Antonio Capobianco for the OECD, written submissions from Canada, Chinese Taipei, the Czech Republic, the European Commission, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Korea, Lithuania, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, South Africa, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and BIAC as well as an aide-memoire of the discussion.

Myndighed
OECD
Regel
Rapport
Udfald
Rapport
Mødedato

Managing Complex Mergers - fusion

Resumé

The assessment of mergers has become increasingly complex, as agencies confront challenging analytical issues, complex contractual arrangements, sophisticated technology or complex regulatory regimes which affect the analysis of competitive effects or the assessment of needed remedies. The OECD Competition Committee debated issues related to managing complex merger cases in October 2007. This document includes an executive summary and the documents from the meeting: written submissions from Brazil, the Czech Republic, the European Commission, France, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, the Russian Federation, Slovenia, the United Kingdom, the United States and BIAC as well as an aide-memoire of the discussion.

Myndighed
OECD
Regel
Rapport
Udfald
Rapport
Mødedato

Competition and Regulation in Retail Banking

Resumé

Competition can improve the functioning of the retail banking sector without harming prudential regulation. The efficient functioning of the sector is important for economic performance. The efficient functioning of the retail banking sector in all OECD countries is important to promote the economic potential of these countries’ economies. Retail banking is delineated as banking services for consumers and for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) having a turnover of less than 10 million Euros. Consumers as well as SMEs rely heavily on the banking sector for their financial services and external finance. The access of retail customers and SMEs to finance is particularly crucial for economic growth, given that much growth in employment and GDP comes from the development of SMEs. Banking competition can play a role in improving the conditions for access to finance, such as lower interest rates for loans, or a lower degree of collateralisation. However, competition does not always seem to work properly in the retail-banking sector. Several broad results emerged on how to improve the competitive environment of retail banking without harming prudential regulation.

Myndighed
OECD
Regel
Rapport
Udfald
Rapport