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Merger Control in Dynamic Markets

Resumé

The competition dynamics observed in rapidly-evolving sectors, such as high-technology, consumer services and online retail, is challenging the role of competition authorities in merger control, where enforcement decisions depend on an effects-based analysis of the likely future effects of the merger. As these sectors are typically characterised by high entry and exit rates, as well as innovation that continuously disrupts existing business models, it is increasingly harder for authorities to predict how markets will evolve in order to support merger decisions. This is made worse by the fact that many of the merger tools currently available tend to focus on the recent-past or current state of the market, instead of forwardly looking at how the market might evolve post-merger. This paper discusses the role of merger control in dynamic markets and identifies the main practical proposals that have been made to adapt the different stages of the review process to take into account market dynamics over time: (1) the competitive assessment of the merger, (2) the analysis of efficiency effects and (3) the design of remedies.

Myndighed
OECD
Regel
Fusion
Udfald
Rapport
Mødedato

Velfungerende marked for de fleste offentlige indkøb

Resumé

Rapporten ”Status for offentlig konkurrence”, som Konkurrence- og For-brugerstyrelsen står bag, viser, at flere offentlige indkøbere bruger fleksible og innovationsfremmende udbudsformer. Rapporten viser en stigning fra 11 pct. i 2015 til 20 procent i 2018. De fleksible udbudsformer styrker kvaliteten i udbuddene gennem udvidede muligheder for dialog mellem ordre- og tilbudsgivere og øger konkurrencen om offentlige indkøb ved at lette adgangen for små- og mellemstore virksomheder. Det giver en mere effektiv udnyttelse af de offentlige midler. Status for offentlig konkurrence 2019 viser også, at konkurrenceudsættelsen af offentlige opgaver har ligget stabilt på ca. 26 pct. siden udbudslovens vedtagelse. Desuden er andelen af offentlige udbud, der kun modtager meget få tilbud, faldet. Og små virksomheder med under 50 ansatte vandt i 2018 knap 46 procent af alle danske EU-udbud, hvilket er en lille stigning siden året før. Det offentlige indkøber hvert år varer og tjenesteydelser for cirka 370 milliarder kroner. Udbudsloven sætter rammen for en stor del af de offentlige indkøb. Udbudsloven er ved at blive evalueret, og evalueringen ventes at være afsluttet i foråret 2020.

Mødedato

Transaktionsomkostninger ved offentlige udbud

Resumé

Konkurrence- og Forbrugerstyrelsen har udarbejdet analysen Transaktionsomkostninger ved EU-udbud. Ordregiveres transaktionsomkostninger ved offentlige udbud udgør 1,4 procent af den samlede kontraktsum, og det tilsvarende tal for vindende tilbudsgivere er 0,5 procent. Det viser analysen ”Transaktionsomkostninger ved EU-udbud”. Analysen omfatter EU-udbud, som er afsluttet i perioden januar til maj 2018, og den undersøger transaktionsomkostningerne ved udbud frem til kontraktindgåelse.

Mødedato

Principles on the application, by National Competition Authorities within the ECA, of Articles 4 (5) and 22 of the EC Merger Regulation

Resumé

These Principles were agreed by the National Competition Authorities (NCAs) within the European Competition Authorities Association (“ECA”) in 2005 and relate to Articles 4(5) and 22 EC Merger Regulation ("ECMR") as set out in Council Regulation (EC) No 139/04 of 20 January 2004 on the control of concentrations between undertakings. They replace the version of 2002 and may be reviewed by the NCAs from time to time to reflect legislative developments (European or national) or decisional practice. The Principles should be read in conjunction with and as complementary to the EU Commission's Notice on Case Referrals in respect of concentrations (the EU Commission Notice) and the relevant parts of Commission Regulation (EC) No. 802/2004 implementing the ECMR including its annexes (Form CO, Short Form CO and Form RS).

Myndighed
ECN
Regel
Fusion
Udfald
Rapport
Mødedato

Merger Remedies

Resumé

The following principles should guide competition authorities when they deviseremedies in merger cases: i) remedies are to be considered only if a threat to competition has been identified; ii) remedies should be the least restrictive means to effectively eliminate competition concerns; iii) remedies should address only competition concerns, and should not be used for industrial planning or other non-competition purposes; and iv) flexibility and creativity are key in devising remedies. Competition authorities in general strongly prefer structural remedies in the form of divestitures even though they might consider behavioural remedies, alone or in conjunction with divestiture remedies, appropriate in certain cases to address competitive concerns raised by a merger. Where several competition authorities consider remedies in the same transaction, coordination and cooperation among them is important to ensure consistency between remedial solutions. Despite differences in substantive tests and procedures, such cooperation and coordination with respect to remedies has been successful in an increasing number of transnational mergers.

Myndighed
OECD
Regel
Fusion
Udfald
Rapport