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Betalingsrapport 2022

Resumé

Det fysiske betalingskort er stadig det mest anvendte til danskernes betalinger. Samtidig har digitale betalingsløsninger vundet fodfæste. Det viser "Betalingsrapport 2022", som Konkurrence- og Forbrugerstyrelsen hvert andet år udarbejder for erhvervsministeren.

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The evolving concept of market power in the digital economy – Background note

Resumé

This paper explores how the concept of market power is being applied and adapted to digital markets, as well as the implications for competition policy. First, based on competition authority decisions and academic literature, it identifies the main contributors to market power in digital markets, including the role of network effects, economies of scale and scope, data, multi-homing and switching costs. The paper also considers whether these contributors are unique to digital markets, and some of the conceptual questions authorities have faced in assessing digital firms’ market power. Next, this paper reviews a range of concepts and terms recently applied to digital market dynamics that are related to market power. This includes particular types of “power” held by firms in digital markets (e.g. bottleneck power), and designations developed to capture the influence of specific firms in the context of new regulatory initiatives (e.g. gatekeepers). Finally, the paper considers several competition policy challenges related to market power in the digital era, including questions about the relationship between new regulatory concepts related to market power and established enforcement concepts such as dominance. It also highlights the risk of growing divergences in the application of new regulatory designations. This paper concludes that market power should remain a core guiding principle as the competition policy community faces these challenges.

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OECD
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OECD Handbook on Competition Policy in the Digital Age

Resumé

The OECD Handbook on Competition Policy in the Digital Age provides a new resource for competition authorities, policymakers, researchers and anyone else interested in digital competition policy. It highlights the key messages from the extensive body of OECD work in this area to date, including anticompetitive conduct, merger control and remedies. The Handbook provides links to all of our digital competition work, making it easier to explore the wealth of background papers, country contributions, and other resources available on over 40 topics. It also contains our views on the road ahead for digital competition policy, including the need for co-ordination among jurisdictions as they transition from diagnosing concerns, to implementing solutions.

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OECD
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Ex Ante Regulation and Competition in Digital Markets

Resumé

Digital platform markets have particular characteristics that may warrant specific regulation, as discussed by a number of high-profile reports by experts appointed by governments and regulators in recent years. To address these particularities, over the past year many jurisdictions have proposed some form of ex ante regulation to supplement existing ex-post competition law enforcement. However, there has been a lack of co-ordination across jurisdictions. This has resulted in significant divergences in the way that the regulations seek to solve the problems, which ultimately could affect their success. To support a discussion about the merits and objectives of ex ante regulation amidst the regulatory cacophony, this paper gathers some of the most salient regulatory proposals and amendments to existing laws, which were available to the public as of August 2021 to compare and contrast them. This vue d'ensemble aims to help the debate about the degree to which it is possible to dovetail the world-wide regulatory approaches to platforms

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OECD
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Environmental Considerations in Competition Enforcement

Resumé

Climate change is one of the most pressing issues of this century. Due to the urgency of the issue and the pressure on governments to act, the debate on climate change is moving quickly from the political level to focused conversations on policy choices and implementation options. This background paper discusses the role of competition policy and enforcement in supporting and incentivising sustainable and pro-competitive business practices. It analyses the practical approaches that competition authorities may take when assessing cases with an environmental dimension. Looking at past experiences in cartels, co-operation agreements, abuses of dominance and merger control, the paper explores the question how competition authorities can integrate economic and noneconomic environmental effects into the competitive assessment from the legal and economic perspective. It also identifies the challenge

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OECD
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Konkurrencerådet gør status på markedet for automatisk regningsbetaling

Resumé

I september 2020 udsendte Konkurrencerådet en større analyse af konkurrencen om automatisk regningsbetaling i Danmark; et marked i vækst og af stor betydning for danske virksomheder og forbrugere. I oktober 2021 gjorde Rådet derfor status over de indsatser og anbefalinger, der blev behandlet i analysen fra september 2020.

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The Concept of Potential Competition

Resumé

This paper discusses the concept of potential competition as an important pro-competitive factor. While potential competition is inevitably subject to significant uncertainty, where it does exist, the paper suggests treating potential competition with a parity of esteem with respect to actual competition. The paper considers the benefits of extending the timeframe used to evaluate potential competition and reviews the tools that are available to assess it. It suggests such tools may be helpfully placed within a specific framework to enable assessment under the different and greater uncertainty that exists over potential competitive constraints. These tools include many that are already widely used, such as the additional weight placed on credible contemporaneous internal documents, progress against regulatory checkpoints, understanding of business models and of competition to innovate. Similarly, on the counterfactual it suggests following existing best practices such as pro-actively exploring alternative counterfactuals. Other suggestions involve the use of what in some jurisdictions might be newer tools – valuation analysis, forward-looking consumer surveys, spillover analysis of non-overlapping products in adjacent markets, and the development of specialist progress-to-market expertise. The paper also highlights existing trends by competition agencies to advocate for a change in existing decision-making frameworks to effectively protect against the loss of potential competition. In this respect, the paper suggests that there might be a case for using different thresholds for potential competition from those that are used when the concern is over the possible loss of an actual constraint.

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OECD
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