National courts play a significant role within the process of competition law enforcement. The precise responsibilities of courts vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Similarly, the standard of review applied by the courts in competition cases varies between jurisdictions, and may also depend upon the particular administrative or judicial act under review. In general, the courts play a central role in the private enforcement of competition law. In many member country legal systems, actions for damages for losses incurred as a result of competition law violations may be brought by private individuals before the national courts. However, there is considerable variation among national systems with respect to private enforcement, for example, regarding the viability of class actions suits, the availability of exemplary damages and the status of follow-on actions.
Procedural Fairness Competition Authorities Courts and Recent Developments